Chapter 3 Accruals And Deferrals Flashcards

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Accruals and Deferrals

Accrual of an expense refers to reporting that expense and related liability in the period of accrual expense. For example, the water expense is due in December, but the payment will not be received until January. Accrual And Deferral AccountingAccrual is the process of recording revenue or expenses that have not yet been settled. Deferring means postponing the realization of revenue or expenditure until a later date. Overall, you’ll know if you’re utilizing accrual or deferred accounting once you understand the status of financial transactions. For example, an accounting manager may know about deferred payments on insurance premiums and can give you insight into how often payments are made to the insurance company.

On January 31st, Webb would debit, or reduce, the liability account Unearned Rental Revenue and credit, or increase, the Rental Revenue account for $500, one-months rent earned. The adjusting journal entry required on May 31st is to debit, or increase, Depreciation Expense on Equipment and credit, or increase, the account Accumulated Depreciation on Equipment for $50. As a depreciable asset is used to produce revenue, the asset loses some of its utility and part of the asset is consumed. At the end of the accounting period, the expense relating to the consumption of the depreciable asset must be recorded. Learning objective number 3 is to prepare adjusting entries to convert assets to expenses. Every adjusting entry involves a revenue or expense and an asset or liability. Two major examples of accrual are account receivables and account payables.

  • The accrual basis of accounting states that expenses are matched with related revenues and are reported when the expense is incurred, not when cash changes hand.
  • The matching concept of accounting states that incomes and expenses should be recognized in the period they relate to rather than the period in which a compensation is received or paid for them.
  • Allocating the income to sales revenue may not seem like a big deal for one subscription, but imagine doing it for a hundred subscriptions, or a thousand.
  • The revenue or the expenses that are earned but are yet to receive by the company are accruals.
  • These entries involve the transfer of data already recorded in asset and liability accounts to expense and revenues accounts.
  • The reason attributed for the overvaluation had been a short-run decline in long-term interest rates.
  • Accruals are created via adjusting journal entries at the end of each accounting period.

Using the accrual method, an accountant makes adjustments for revenue that has been earned but is not yet recorded in the general ledger and expenses that have been incurred but are also not yet recorded. The accruals are made via adjusting journal entries at the end of each accounting period, so the reported financial statements can be inclusive of these amounts.

Free Accounting Courses

The asset account is reduced and the expense account is increased. The second major category of adjustments is when cash is paid or Accruals and Deferrals received after the expense or revenue is recognized. An example is when a renter pays their quarterly rent payments in advance.

A deferral can play a full 12 months and contribute to each performance, unlike the accrual that always comes and goes. An explanation of accruals can be given through accrued income, which refers to the income for which the work has been done but which has not yet been credited to the worker’s account. The company should record both revenue and accounts receivable for $200 each. Accrual of an expense refers to the reporting of that expense and the related liability in the period in which they occur. For example, water expense that is due in December, but the payment of that expense will be not be made until January.


The use of accrual accounts greatly improves the quality of information on financial statements. Before the use of accruals, accountants only recorded cash transactions. Unfortunately, cash transactions don’t give information about other important business activities, such as revenue based on credit extended to customers or a company’s future liabilities.

  • Until the business consumes the products or services that it has already paid for, it cannot recognize is as an expense.
  • •External cash flows must be treated in a consistent manner with the firm’s documented, composite-specific policy.
  • This approach also helps with comparing financial statements from different periods.
  • During the period mid-1990s, the present value model parameters indicate a 43% overvaluation of stock prices.

Drexel University, the Academy of Natural Sciences, and DUO must accrue all expenses for goods and services that were received on or before June 30 of each fiscal year. For the fiscal year 2022 close, we will follow the schedule listed below for all expenses.

Receivables Aging Reports

It will be debited instead of cash when revenue is finally earned. As such, the deferral creates an obligation for you to satisfy the advanced payment. As such, you need to put on hold the recognition of revenue or expense until you earn or incur them respectively. However, for your debit entry, you cannot debit cash as you haven’t received any cash yet. Sometimes, they receive payment at a later date, depending on the terms of credit extended to the customer. You record revenue whenever you receive cash and you record an expense whenever you part with cash. •For periods prior to 1 January 2010, firms must calculate composite returns by asset weighting the individual portfolio returns at least quarterly.

Accruals and Deferrals

•Firms must use time-weighted rates of return that adjust for external cash flows. External cash flows are defined as cash, securities, or assets that enter or exit a portfolio and are generally client-driven. Income earned on a portfolio’s assets is not considered an external cash flow. Even though accrual accounting leads to financial reports that provide better summary information than would a cash-flow based report, accruals can be too much of a good thing. That is, rather than accruals providing enhanced earnings figures, they do the opposite. Revenue AccountRevenue accounts are those that report the business’s income and thus have credit balances.

Deferred Expense

This system of bookkeeping states that business transactions will be recorded in two different accounts in the accounting system of a business. This is because, according to the double-entry concept, a transaction affects, at least, two accounts. These transactions are first analyzed and then recorded in two corresponding accounts for the business transaction. Interest is paid by the bank on the 15th of each month.The end of Webb’s accounting period falls on January 31st. From the 15th of January until the 31st, Webb earned $170 on its account at the bank.Let’s make the adjusting entry to recognize the interest earned from January 15th to January 31st.

Accruals and Deferrals

For instance, if your business performs a service for a client, you have earned the revenue for that service. Before you receive the cash, the revenue is entered into an accrued revenue account. After you receive cash from your client, the accrued revenue account is decreased by the amount of cash received. Deferrals are the payments received in advance that will affect the business in the future therefore they aren’t included in the current year. It also includes expenses that have been paid for but which have not become due in the current period.

Accruals And Deferrals

In this manner, the profit shown during each period will be a more accurate reflection of the economic activity that took place in the period but perhaps a less accurate portrayal of the cash flows. It will additionally be reflected in the receivables account as of December 31, because the utility company has fulfilled its obligations to its customers in earning the revenue at that point. The adjusting journal entry for December would include a debit to accounts receivable and a credit to a revenue account. The following month, when the cash is received, the company would record a credit to decrease accounts receivable and a debit to increase cash.

For example, a company receives an annual software license fee paid out by a customer upfront on the January 1. So, the company using accrual accounting adds only five months’ worth (5/12) of the fee to its revenues in profit and loss for the fiscal year the fee was received. The rest is added to deferred income on the balance sheet for that year. For example, if the company prepares its financial statements in the fourth month after the rent is paid in advance, the company will report a deferred expense of $8,000 ($12,000 – ($1,000 x 4)). Similarly, the rent expense in the income statement will be equal to $4,000 ($1,000 x 4) for only four months.


In December 2021, you were able to deliver an order of your product to a certain customer. For example, let’s say that you own a business that sells specialized products. Similar to revenue, it doesn’t matter whether you’ve actually paid for them or not. •Firms must calculate time-weighted total returns, including income as well as realized and unrealized gains and losses. •Accrual accounting should be used for dividends (as of the ex-dividend date). Examine whether there has been a stable relation between prices and dividends over the 20-year period for firms in the S&P 100. The study suggest a close link between stock prices and dividends based on DDMs.

Deferred Expenses

It focuses on the year-end activities culminating in the annual report. These include the preparation of adjusting entries, preparing the financial statements themselves, drafting the footnotes to the statements, closing the accounts, and preparing for the audit.

Example Of An Expense Deferral

A corresponding interest liability will be recorded on the balance sheet. As you can recall, for both types of deferrals there are two methods of recording. That is, in the case of prepaid expenses the asset and expense methods and in the case of unearned revenues the liability and revenue methods of recording. Both alternative methods of recording deferrals result in the same effects on the financial statements. Then, the next logical question to ask is which method of recording to use.

It allows the recording of transactions without having to recognize revenue or expense… yet. Under the cash accounting method, it doesn’t matter when you completed the service. This creates the same issue with accruals in that there’s a possibility to record the revenue or expense of a certain period in another period. Rather, you need to debit an accrued asset, which is in this case, accounts receivable. This means that you can more accurately record the revenue and expense transactions of your business.

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